Definition of mental retardation
The American Association on Mental Retardation defines mental retardation as “a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before 18th.
causes of mental retardation in children
- Autosomal abnormalities
- Duplication deletions
Sex chromosomes abnormalities
- Fragile X mutations
- Turner syndrome
- Klinefelter syndrome
- Rett syndrome
- Various multiple X and/or Y chromosomes conditions
Autosomal dominant conditions
- Neurocutaneous syndromes
- Neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis
Autosomal recessive conditions
- Amino acid metabolism
- Carbohydrate metabolism
- Lipid metabolism
- Tay-Sachs disease
- Gaucher disease
- Niemann-pick disease
- Purine metabolism
- Other (Wilson disease)
Multifactorial and sporadic conditions
- Cornelia de lange syndrome
- Spinal cord disorders
- Disorders of brain and skull
- Prenatal factors
- Rh incompability
- Maternal infections: all TORCH viruses
- Maternal disease (diabetes mellitus, toxemia)
- Maternal substance abuse (alcohol use/abuse). Fetal alcohol syndrome is a leading environmental cause of mental retardation.
- Prescription medications (accutane, dilatin)
- Post maturity
- Birth injuries
- High risk mothers
- Childhood diseases (e.g meningitis, encephalitis, general inflammatory disease with high fever, hypothyroidism)
- Trauma (e.g., accidents, physical abuse, marked deprivation)
- Poisoning (e.g., lead carbon monoxide, household products)
- Speech problems
- Maladaptive behaviors
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
– Found with greater frequency among patients with neurophychological dusfunction)
Clinical manifestations or symptoms of mental retardation in children
Clinical manifestations vary according to severity of mental retardation, which can be classified as mild, moderate, severe, and profound (American Psychiatric Association). Mild mental retardation is the most common type. Infants with mild degrees of mental retardation are often not identified as mentally retarded by observers. However, during infancy and early childhood, the caregiver may note developmental delays (achievement of developmental milestones later than expected) in language acquisition, social development, and motor skills. Many children with mild mental retardation remain undiagnosed until primary grades, when they manifest delays in academic cognates such as reading or arithmetic. Eventually with special education, they can acquire these skills at a third-to sixth level, and can learn the rules that govern social exchanges. In adulthood, many persons with mild mental retardation live independently, working in the community.
Children with moderate mental retardation display obvious delays in motor development and speech; yet, they can learn self help activities.
During the school-age years, they can learn simple methods to communicate, basic health and safety habits, and simple manual skills. They may benefit from vocational training, but seldom progress academically beyond the second grade level. As adults, persons with moderate mental retardation are usually able to work, and most live in supervised settings.
With severe mental retardation, children typically acquire little if any communicative speech during preschool years, but may learn some language in school years.
Education focuses on the basics on the basic of independent living skills, such as toilet bathing, simple communications, self feeding develops, and they may profit from learning to speech eventually develops, and they may profit from learning to sight read words such as stop, don’t walk, quiet, men, women, and their own names.
Most children with profound mental retardation also have an identified syndrome that limits their abilities, both motor and sensory. They need a highly structured setting with constant monitoring and supervision. Children with profound mental retardation may respond to training in using their legs, hands, and muscles or eating, and speech.
Homeopathy treatment for mental retardation in children:
Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity by using holistic approach. This is the only way through which a state of complete health can be regained by removing all the sign and symptoms from which the patient is suffering. The aim of homeopathy is not only to treat but to address its underlying cause and individual susceptibility. As far as therapeutic medication is concerned, several remedies are available to treat mental retardation in children that can be selected on the basis of cause, sensations and modalities of the complaints. For individualized remedy selection and treatment, the patient should consult a qualified homeopathic doctor in person. There are following remedies which are helpful in the treatment of mental retardation of children:
Baryta Carb, Carcinosin, Aethusa, Baryta Mur, Bufo, Calcaria Phos, Carb Sulph, Helleborus Niger, Medorrhinum, Phosphorous, Tuberculinum, Agaricus, Anacardium, Antim Crude, Belladonna, Capsicum, Chamomilla, Hyoscyamus, Mercurius, Natrum Mur, Nux Vomica, Plumbum Met, Stramonium, Tabacum, and many other medicines.